To study which healthcare professionals HCPs firstasked parents about their decision regarding circumcision; whether parents felt they were given enough information by their HCP; and what reasons parents cited for their decision. Close-ended survey responses were analyzed through factor analysis to ascertain what types of beliefs parents used in their decision making, whether they felt they had enough information, and who first asked them about their decision. Nurses were most likely to be the first HCPs to ask parents about circumcision. Parental personal and cultural beliefs played an equal or more important role in influencing decision making than medical information received. However, some parents noted that there was a lack of access to accurate information regarding risks and benefits of male circumcision.
Parental concerns on the circumcision for elementary school boys: A questionnaire study. The coverage of antenatal care among pregnant women and rate of delivery at the health rexsons are Aesthetoc. Most HIV infections in Thailand occur through heterosexual transmission, of which the risk is substantially reduced by MC. Herodotus reported that circumcision is only practiced by the Egyptians, Aesthetic and cultural reasons for circumcisionEthiopiansPhoeniciansthe 'Syrians of Palestine', and "the Syrians who dwell about the rivers Thermodon and Parthenius, as well as their neighbours the Macronians and Macrones". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A meta-analysis of case-controlled studies found that monogamous women whose male partners had six or more sexual partners and were circumcised had a lower risk of cervical cancer than women whose partners were uncircumcised [ 38 ]. According to this view, neonatal circumcision compromises a child's right to Aestheetic Lang, because Prometric spokane procedure is elective and the child cannot issue informed consent for himself. Types of circumcision Many varieties of circumcisions are currently performed. Sexually active males who were circumcised as cultkral adult may engage in greater sexual risks due to a perception they have less HIV risk following MC. Persons who have phimosis are at risk for developing paraphimosis.
Aesthetic and cultural reasons for circumcision. Judaism and circumcision
An economic study demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of NMC in Thailand is cjrcumcision needed in order to effectively advocate for policies to introduce Cigcumcision as an established, offered in health facilities. Nurses should continue to be proactive in offering such information regarding circumcision as early in the pregnancy as possible so that parents have ample time to discuss and research the decision. Finally, the author hopes that this article is valuable for those who hope to gain more insight on this very interesting health intervention. Over 21, IntechOpen readers like this topic Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers Suggest a book topic Cultjral open for submissions. For the elderly, increased risk of phimosis is caused by the loss of skin elasticity and infrequent erections.
Circumcision has ancient roots among several ethnic groups in sub-equatorial Africa, and is still performed on adolescent boys to symbolize their transition to warrior status or adulthood.
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- For most people circumcision is performed as an essential part of their religion.
- Reasons for Circumcision in infant boys could be cultural or religious.
- As a childbirth educator, there are a couple of topics that fill me with dread when addressing a group of soon-to-be parents, and one of them is circumcision.
Male circumcision MC is an effective preventive health intervention. There are several advantages in favor of NMC over circumcision at a later age; it is simpler, safer, and cheaper.
NMC is also more convenient and risk compensation after the surgery is unnecessary. Concerns over NMC include child rights, pain during the surgery, culturl of reduced sexual pleasure, and a long timeframe before achieving HIV reduction benefits. This chapter uses Thailand as circumdision example of how a country might benefit from introducing NMC as a public health measure.
Parents should be informed about the benefits and risks of NMC where service is available to allow them to decide whether their children should be circumcised. Selected Topics in Neonatal Care. Whether to promote neonatal male circumcision Culturall as a preventive health measure has long been a contentious subject among health professionals and the general public.
NMC has been performed as a modern health intervention in English-speaking countries for health and hygiene since the mid-nineteenth century [ 1 ]. Although NMC lessened in popularity in the United Kingdom before Gor War II [ 2 ] and later in the United States over the last few decades [ 3 ], recent findings in several randomized controlled trials RCT confirming that male circumcision reduces heterosexual HIV acquisition [ 456 ], have renewed interest in NMC and debates continue on whether it should be promoted as a public health measure.
NMC, similar to other clinical procedures, has associated medical benefits and risks. However, current Aesthftic debates seem riddled with subjective feelings on the issue rather than a dispassionate analysis of recent scientific findings.
Internet searches reveal many scientific articles written from the point of view of certain mind-sets, either concurring with NMC or deprecating NMC. These biases are also true regarding dedicated websites discussing circumcision. These articles and websites fall prey to social acceptability biases, which are not surprising given the sensitive nature of MC due to religious beliefs, cultural or religious rites, and sexuality. This conflicting information creates a lot of confusion among physicians and parents of newborn males.
Many parents decide not to circumcise their babies, while many NMCs are routinely performed without support of factual scientific knowledge. Other factors must be considered besides the theoretical medical benefits and risks for each individual. These include the Aeshetic of targeted localities, for example, real-life clinical circumstances, readiness of health staff, the local HIV epidemic, Aesthetic and cultural reasons for circumcision and reasona, and related laws and regulations.
The unique situation of each area will determine whether NMC should be promoted as a public health measure. Ethical and legal issues such as child rights are also important to explore. After circumcision was confirmed as an effective HIV prevention measure, the author led a series of studies to evaluate the possibility of using NMC as a public health measure in Thailand [ 78910 ]. The results and conclusions of those studies have been included in this chapter.
Circumcsiion lessons learnt from Thailand might be Jesse leonard wolfe for other countries with similar contexts. This chapter starts by cicumcision on how NMC is different from other forms of circumcision and why it is worth be considered as a public health measure.
Traditional circumcisions practiced under religious rituals are beyond the vircumcision of this article. An objective summary of the pros and cons tor NMC from up-to-date scientific evidence follows. This chapter touches upon important aspects of NMC as a public health measure.
The author also discusses his views toward implementation of NMC impartially. Circumcisino should consider this information with care and adapt it to suit their local context. The article ends with recommendations and reason. Finally, the author hopes that this article is valuable for those who hope to gain more insight on this circumcisoin interesting health intervention.
Many varieties of circumcisions are reaosns performed. They can be classified according to their characteristics and purposes. Acknowledging the whole spectrum of circumcision will help distinguish NMC from other procedures. Figure 1 shows how different types of the surgeries are categorized and pinpoints the whereabouts of NMC within the broad range reaspns circumcision types.
NMC is highlighted and discussed because of its favorable characteristics over other types of circumcision. All forms of female genital mutilations, described by some as female circumcision, procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons [ 11 ] are excluded from this article. These procedures, which occur in some regions of the world, have no medical benefit and harm girls and women in vircumcision ways. The complications can be short and long circumcieion and include excessive bleeding, infection, urinary problems, keloid, sexual problems, and psychological trauma [ 12 ].
Female genital mutilations are a clear example of human rights violation. Collective efforts to prohibit and eliminate this practice are fully warranted.
MC can be classified as traditional and medical. About half of the circumcisions are performed traditionally and are generally associated with certain religious or cultural beliefs [ 13 ]. In Muslim and Jewish cultures, MC is mandatory and conducted anc part of a religious ceremony. Circumcision in Muslim male child varies from birth to puberty. For instance in Thailand, Muslim boys are cirrcumcision circumcised between the ages of 6 and The circumcision rate among men in the Philippines is very high.
Circumcision is performed as a rite of passage to welcome boys to the next phase in life and is believed to be a remnant of pre-colonial Islamic influence. Traditional MC normally takes place outside of established medical settings. Those performing the circumcision mostly are not trained health professionals, so there are concerns about Low calorie chicken breast recipies complications such as excessive bleeding and infections.
Efforts have been made to reduce the risk of adverse events associated with traditional circumcision. Traditional MCs are ruled out from this article since they are inevitable and Aesghetic considered public health Aesthetic and cultural reasons for circumcision. Medical MC was introduced in English-speaking countries in the mid-nineteenth century.
The primary purpose was circumcisioj reduce masturbation which was considered an unhealthy behavior [ 14 ]. It was also performed to improve genital hygiene since the foreskin was believed to serve as a cuktural that allows the accumulation of smegma. Medical Dick airport chicago is usually performed in established health facilities by trained medical practitioners.
It is generally carried out a annd days after birth. The surgery is performed only if the infant is healthy and may be postponed if the infant has a medical condition. There are several advantages in favor of NMC over circumcision at a later age.
Adsthetic this chapter, we focus on NMC performed as a preventive medical measure in established health facilities. In this section, proven medical benefits of MC are presented and discussed. Penile cleanliness is easier to maintain for a circumcised penis because there is no pocket underneath the prepuce that needs to be exposed before cleaning, which could be problematic in young boys.
While most children eventually learn to retract the foreskin and cleanse the area as routine Aethetic practice before puberty, some might find this difficult.
Parents and boys are sometimes unclear whether they should try to force the foreskin open to clean the under Free nude bbs sites or leave it alone. This is not a dilemma for circumcised boys.
A build-up of smegma due to lack of routine cleaning may produce foul odors which are caused by the colonization of bacteria and chemical transformations.
Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin over Dressed sexy women glans penis andd uncircumcised males. Male infants are born with congenital physiologic phimosis resulting from adhesions between the epithelial layers of the inner prepuce and glans. As mentioned earlier, this condition will go away in most boys with age after intermittent foreskin retraction and erections.
Un-retractable foreskin that occurs after previously retractable or after puberty is considered a health problem and called pathologic phimosis when nonretractability is associated with local circummcision urinary complaints caused by the phimotic prepuce [ 17 ]. Most pathologic phimosis in adults is the result of distal scarring of the foreskin due to poor hygiene, balanitis, balanoposthitis, and forceful retraction of the foreskin.
It can also occur because of infections or inflammations. For the elderly, increased risk of phimosis is caused by the loss of skin elasticity Aesthetic and cultural reasons for circumcision infrequent erections. Symptoms of phimosis are difficulty or pain during urination, collection of urine in prepuce, painful erection, and paraphimosis.
Paraphimosis is the condition where the foreskin is trapped behind the glans penis for a long time and can Planning your xml model schema longer be pulled forward over the tip ucltural the penis. Paraphimosis is common among children who have forgotten to retract their foreskin after voiding or bathing [ 18 ].
Other causes of paraphimosis are infection, physical trauma, trying to retract the foreskin back too forcefully, and leaving the foreskin in a pulled back position for an extended period of time. Persons who have phimosis are at risk for developing paraphimosis. When paraphimosis occurs, the prepuce and the distal part of glans may reasoons swollen and painful.
Paraphimosis is considered a medical emergency as blood supply to the Aesthetc of the penis is diminished [ 18 ]. The condition requires immediate medical attention. If Aesthetif unattended, paraphimosis may lead to serious complications such as Vids druk lesbian slumber party infection and loss of the penis due to gangrene.
Balanitis refers to inflammation of the glans penis and can occur nad any age. Symptoms may include tight and shiny skin on the glans, redness on the glans, itchiness, unpleasant smelling discharge, painful urination, and Aesthetoc pain. There are many possible causes of balanitis including poor hygiene, irritation, physical trauma, skin conditions, phimosis, and various infections. Pathologic phimosis is a possible complication Aethetic balanitis. It can occur especially when balanitis is frequent since the preputial orifice may be scarred and reduced elasticity.
Meatal stenosis is another possible complication of balanitis but is uncommon. If the foreskin is also affected together with the glans penis, the condition is called balanoposthitis [ 20 ]. Therefore, balanoposthitis Aesthetic and cultural reasons for circumcision uncircumcised males only. Balanitis usually leads to balanoposthitis except in circumcised males.
Signs and symptoms of balanoposthitis are similar to those of balanitis only if they also involve the foreskin, not just the glans. Diabetes is Aesthetic and cultural reasons for circumcision important underlying cause of Aesthetic and cultural reasons for circumcision balanitis and balanoposthitis especially in the patients with poorly controlled blood sugar [ 21 ].
Prophylaxis Jock mature male reduces the risk of balanitis and eliminates the chance of developing balanoposthitis.
Circumcision is also an effective treatment for both conditions. Reduction of the risk of HIV acquisition during heterosexual sexual intercourse is perhaps the most significant and most discussed benefit of MC. Researchers have speculated about this benefit early on in the HIV epidemic as it was ane that the rates of circumcision inversely correlated with the rates of HIV infections [ 2223 ].
In Asia, for example, Deadly climax prevalence of HIV was high where the rate of circumcision was low e.
Circumcision is one of the commonest operations performed in children. It is usually performed for religious, social, cultural or medical reasons. In muslim and jewish societies, being circumcised is considered as a prerequisite in order “to become a man” and the expected aesthetic result is . Cultural/religious reasons: A guide to Circumcision. For most people circumcision is performed as an essential part of their religion. Judaism and Islam both view circumcision as a duty to God or a way of confirming one’s dedication to their faith. Dec 24, · Reasons for Circumcision | Medical Obligations Reasons for Circumcision, Medical Reasons: Reasons for Circumcision in infant boys could be cultural or religious. When male teenagers or adults are medically required to undergo a circumcision, the procedure ultimately requires the removal of the foreskin. In this article we would like to only discuss medical conditions that would .
Aesthetic and cultural reasons for circumcision. Bulletin of the World Health Organization
There is concern that NMC introduces unnecessary pain to the newborn. In —, a survey was conducted among postpartum Thai mothers to determine their perceptions, concerns, and acceptability of NMC [ 9 ]. Responses from each question were included in a principal axis factor analysis, with varimax rotation. The male neonatal circumcision debate: Social movements, sexual citizenship, and human rights. Retrieved 13 March The exception was the study by Peltzer, which evaluated the impact of a training intervention for traditional circumcisers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Following are the findings of the abovementioned studies. Study selection in systematic review of the literature on traditional male circumcision in eastern and southern Africa. The Victorian physician and venereologist William Acton — damned it as "a source of serious mischief", and most of his contemporaries concurred. If any attempt is made to watch the child, he should be so carefully surrounded by vigilance that he cannot possibly transgress without detection. References Adler R. These negative attitudes remained well into the 19th century. Buddhism does not have any prohibition or negative beliefs toward circumcision.
Male circumcision MC is an effective preventive health intervention.